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  3. 再辨恒大造车真假

再辨恒大造车真假

CONGGUANGZHOUSHIQUYANZHENANSHAGANGKUAISUYILUWANGNAN,BUGUOBANXIAOSHI,LUPANGYONGJIDEGAOLOUDASHA,JIUHUANCHENGLELVSEDETIANJIANJINGSE。

ZAIPAOJISHIGONGLI,JINRUNANSHAQUWANQINGSHAZHEN,YUANYUANDI,ZUOSHOUBIANJIUYOUSIGEDAZIPAICHUANGRUYANLIAN:HENGDAQICHE。

乐优彩票开户HENGDAQICHENANSHAGONGCHANGWAIWEIHAIZAISHIGONG

8YUE25RI,WOZAIHENGDAQICHENANSHAGONGCHANGXIANGMUZHOUBIANKANDAO,DAHUOCHEWANGLAIBUXIA,WAIWEISHIGONGHAIZAIJINZHANGJINXING。

乐优彩票开户JINRUCHANGQU,HAIYOUHENDUOJIANZHUZAISHIGONG。YEYOUJIGEDAJIANZHUTIYIJINGLUOCHENG,WOJINRULEQIZHONGYIGE。BUXIANGXUJIAYINZAIZHUDUOJIQIRENQIAN“ZHIDIANJIANGSHAN”DECHANGMIAN,ZHEIGECHEJIAN,CHULESHUQIDEWEIDANG,JIBENSHIKONGDE。YOUBUSHAODUERGONGSITIGONGDESHEBEI,HAIZAIDISHANGFANGZHE,MEIYOUCHAIBAO。

乐优彩票开户HENGDAGUANGZHOUNANSHAGONGCHANGDEYIGECHEJIAN

总体看来,正如恒大汽车高层所说,恒大汽车广州工厂已经进入了设备安装阶段。

ZAICONGHENGDAQICHENANSHAGONGCHANGWANGDONG,ZHIXIANJULIJIU2GONGLIZUOYOU,HENGDAYANGGUANGBANDAOSHOULOUCHU,KEWEIGUKEYINGMEN。

乐优彩票开户HENGDAYANGGUANGBANDAOYIQIJIANSHEJINDUYIJINGGUOBAN

这个楼盘一期8月8日开盘,仅半个月,一期楼盘的大部分就已经卖完了。楼盘标价2.3万,以近期恒大常推的75折,算下来要1.7万一平左右。恒大当初拿下时的楼面地价,不到1万元。

乐优彩票开户HENGDAYANGGUANGBANDAOYIQILOUPANYIJINGJIBENSHOUQING

对比:两块地,两个进度;两种生意,一个恒大。

如果以2018年6月、恒大健康宣布间接入股贾跃亭的FF开始算,恒大宣布造车已经27个月。如今,我们有了更多信息,来研判这个中国最大的房地产集团,到底是不是真造车。

答案似乎已经板上钉钉:已投入过百亿、工厂落成安装、六款概念车亮相……恒大造车,如箭在弦,已成必发之势。

但细看恒大造车之法,高举高打,大开大合,既求快,也求多,造车业务要独立盈利难度太大。如此造车,只为造车吗?还是在恒大下的一盘大棋里,服从大局的一个棋子?

HENGDAZAOCHEZHIZHENJIA,JIANZHISHIGEZHEXUEWENTI。

1

股票改名,六车齐发

9YUE1RI,XIANGGANGSHANGSHIGONGSIHENGDAJIANKANGZAILIANJIAOSUODEJIAOYIJIANCHENG,GENGMINGHENGDAQICHE。

ZHEIGESHIHOU,QICHEYEWUZHANGAIGONGSIDUODABILINI?

8月23日,该公司公布了半年报。健康管理收益 23.64亿元,而新能源汽车产业收益 2.84亿元。新能源汽车业务收入刚过一成,九成都是健康管理业务,却挂上了汽车公司的名头。

ZHEIYIJUCUOXIANGDANGYOUDAIBIAOXING,HENGDAJINQIYIXILIEDONGZUO,DOUSHIWEILEZHENGMING,TAMENDEZAOCHESHIRENZHENDE,ERQIEYEWUJINZHANSHUNLI。

乐优彩票开户8YUE3RI,HENGDAFABUMEITITONGGAOCHENG,HENGDAQIXIAQICHEPINPAIHENGCHIQICHEFABULE6KUANCHEXING,BAOKUOHENGCHI1、HENGCHI2、HENGCHI3、HENGCHI4、HENGCHI5、HENGCHI6,QUANMIANFUGAILEADAODJISUOYOUJIBIE,YIJIJIAOCHE、、、KUAJIECHEDENGQUANXILIECHEXING。

8YUE7RI,YIPIMEITIBAODAOCHENG,HENGDAQICHESHANGHAISHENGCHANJIDI、GUANGZHOUSHENGCHANJIDIJINRUSHEBEIANZHUANGDIAOSHIJIEDUAN,HENGDAJITUANDONGSHIJUZHUXIXUJIAYINYEFUHENGDAQICHESHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUSHENGCHANJIDISHICHA,LEJIESHEBEIDIAOSHIJINZHAN。

8YUE27RI,HENGDAQICHEZHAOKAIZHONGQIYEJIFABUHUISHANG。HENGDAQICHEZONGCAILIUYONGZHUOBIAOSHI,GONGSIZHENGZAIKUAISUCHOUJIAN36GEHENGCHIZHANSHITIYANZHONGXIN、1600GEHENGCHIXIAOSHOUZHONGXIN、3000GEWEIBAOXIUSHOUHOUFUWUZHONGXIN。

HENGDAQICHEZHONGQIYEJIFABUHUI,YOUYIWEILIUYONGZHUO

另外,恒大此前称计划3年内投入450亿元用来造车,实际当中也有部分落地。恒大汽车首席财务官潘大荣在发布会上介绍,恒大集团2019年投入147亿元,2020年上半年投入30亿元,预计2020年下半年投入27亿元,2021年投入90亿元。简单计算,总投入294亿。

HENGDAQICHEGONGBUDEJITUANTOURU

乐优彩票开户JIASHANGQIANMIANTIDAODEGENGMINGJUCUO,HENGDAQICHECHENGWEIQICHEMEITI、XINGYEZHEIYIGEYUEREYIDEHUATI。

CHULEZHEIXIEHENGDAGONGKAIDEJUCUO,WOMENCONGZHIJIECONGLIANGGEGONGYINGSHANGCHULEJIEDAO,TAMENZHENGZAIPEIHEHENGDADECHEXINGKAIFAJIEZOU,ZHUNBEIMINGNIANLIANGCHAN。

SHANGSHIGONGSISANHUAZHIKONG8YUE18RIYEGONGGAOCHENG,QUANZIZIGONGSISANHUAQILINGYUSHOUDAOLEHENGDAHENGCHIXINNENGYUANQICHEYANJIUYUAN(SHANGHAI)YOUXIANGONGSIDETONGZHI,SANHUAQILINGBEIQUEDINGWEIHENGDAXINNENGYUANQICHEHENGCHIXILIECHEXINGDUOGEREGUANLIFALEI、BENGLEICHANPINDEDUJIAGONGYINGSHANG。

《电动汽车观察家》还在和一位供应商的交流中获知,只要符合进度要求,恒大付款很痛快,而且许家印对项目进度很在意,常常直接过问或参与决策。

这位供应商还表示,与恒大汽车员工对接过程中,感觉到恒大这个房产巨头高效的执行力,远超其他车企。

BUGUO,BINGBUSHISUOYOURENDOURENKEHENGDADUIGONGYINGSHANGDETAIDU。LIANGWEIYIJINGLIZHIHENGDADEYUANGONGDOUBIAOSHI,HENGDADUIGONGYINGSHANGDEFUKUANBINGBUSHUANGKUAI,SHENZHINENGTUOZETUO。

仔细辨别,恒大可能亲疏有别,对于原来国能等收购公司的供应商,付款确实不痛快。目前,国能新能源汽车有限责任公司、技术开发有限责任公司这两家公司,都有大量诉讼正在进行中,其中很多都牵涉供应商货款。卡耐新能源也有大量诉讼正在进行中。

BUGUO,SUIRANJIEPANFANGHENGDAYAOWEIGUOWANGFUZHAIFUZE,DANCHUYUDUIGUOWANGQIYEQINGKUANGBULEJIEDEBEIJING(“MAIMAIMAI”ZHIXIA,NANMIANHULUNTUNZAO),HENGDAKENENGLEYUZOUSIFACHENGXU,YESHIJINSHENZHIJU。

而恒大真正另起炉灶,以恒驰品牌统领的新车型开发、供应准备、工厂建设等事宜,恒大确实展现土豪本色,付钱足且快。

CONGGONGKAIDEJUCUO,HAIYOUGONGYINGSHANGDEDONGZUOLAIKAN,HENGDAWUYISHIYAOZAOCHELE。NEIMEHENGDAYOUSHIZENMEZAOCHEDENI?

2

恒大造车术

YIKOUQIFABULIUKUANCHEDESHI,QUESHIJINGTIANDONGDI,RANGRENBUDEBUPEIFUHENGDADEQISHI。

不过,这六款车也让人不太好理解。首先,恒大发布这六款车,却没有说明六款车的进度。后来在中期业绩报告会上,刘永灼表示,恒驰汽车将在明年上半年启动试生产,下半年会实现量产。

TAMEIYOUMINGQUEBIAOSHI,SHISHANGHAIHEGUANGZHOUNAGEGONGCHANG,YEMEIYOUSHUOSHINAKUANCHE。

QICI,XINCHUANGQICHEQIYEHENGDA,ZENMENENGYIXIAZIZUOCHULIUKUANCHE?

CONGYIBANDEZHENGCHEKAIFALIUCHENGLAIKAN,ZAICHEXINGKAIFAZHIQIAN,YAOXIANZUOSHICHANGFENXI,DUICHEXINGKAIFAZUOLIXIANGDEYANJIU,QUEDINGCHANPINDINGWEISHENZHISHICHANGYUGU。WOMENBUZHIDAOHENGDASHIFOUZOULEZHEIYILIUCHENG,ZHIZHIDAOHENGDAHENZAOJIUQUEDINGLE14KUANCHETONGSHIKAIFA。

乐优彩票开户XIAYIBUSHIZAOXINGSHEJI。HENGDACHENG,YU15WEISHIJIEDINGJIQICHEZAOXINGSHEJIDASHIQIANYUE,WEI“HENGCHI”QUANXILIECHEXINGTIGONGZAOXINGSHEJI。

ZAIWANGXIASHIGONGCHENGSHEJIHESHIZHI、YANZHENG。HENGDACENGBIAOSHI,“YUQUANQIUDINGJIANDEQICHEGONGCHENGJISHULONGTOUFEVJITUAN、DEGUOEDAGJITUAN、AODILIAVLJITUAN、JIANADAMAGNAJITUAN”,“TONGBUYANFA14KUANXINCHEXING,FUGAIHENGCHIQUANXILIECHANPIN。”ZHEIXIEGONGCHENGJISHUGONGSIZHONG,YOUDEJUBEILIANGCHANQIANDEQUANLIUCHENGGONGCHENGKAIFAYANZHENGNENGLI。BIRUEDAGJITUAN,NENGZUOZHENGCHEXITONGYANFA,HAIBAOKUOJIANMO、YANGCHEHEXIAOGUIMODESHENGCHAN,SHENZHIHAINENGTIGONGBAICHESHENHESHENGCHANXIANZONGZHUANGDEFUWU。

最后就是量产,恒大目前至少在上海和广州建设工厂,而且目前在设备安装阶段。在这一方面,恒大收购的国能汽车的天津工厂,已经被完全忽略。在国能工厂基本闲置的情况下,不知道恒大要怎么解决生产资质的问题。按主管部门的产能控制逻辑,在国能天津工厂产能利用率如此不足时,是不应该将资质给上海或者广州工厂使用的。

乐优彩票开户LIQINGLEHENGDAZAOCHELIUCHENGZHIHOU,YOUYIDIANRANGRENYIWAI。HENGDABUSHISHOUGOULEGUONENGYIGEWANZHENGDEZHENGCHEGONGSIMA?BUSHIYOUYIGEHAOCHENGYAOZHAOPIN8000RENDEQUANQIUYANJIUZONGYUANMA?BUSHIHAISHOUGOULEHAOJIJIALINGBUJIANGONGSI、ZHENGCHEDIPANGONGSI?TAMENWEISHENMEHAIXUYAOJIEZHUZHEIMEDUODEZAOXINGSHEJIGONGSIHEGONGCHENGJISHUGONGSINI?

恒大现在的造车模式,基本是依靠外部力量来提供“交钥匙工程”,一位国内的汽车工程设计公司高层说。

乐优彩票开户ZAI2000NIANQIANHOU,ZHONGGUOZIZHUPINPAICHEQIKAISHIFAYU,DANSHIGUANYUQICHEKAIFA,ZIZHUPINPAIBUZHIDAOZENMEGAN。“GENGGUANJIANDESHI,NEISHIHOUDEQICHEXIAOFEIZHEYEHENCHUJI,DUIHAOHUAIYEMEINEIMEGAODEYAOQIU,BIANYIJIUHAO。SUOYI,ZIZHUPINPAIJIUZHAOHUIGANDESHEJIGONGSI,BUJINZUOWAIXINGSHEJI、GONGCHENGJIEGOUTUZHI,HAIDEZUOYANGCHEZUOSHIYAN,SHENZHIZUOGONGYINGSHANGDEGUANLI,YIZHIDAOSHENGCHANXIANGONGZHUANGMOJUDEDINGGOU、YANSHOU、DIAOSHI,RANHOUTOUCHANZHUNBEIDENGDENG,ZUIHOUSHENGCHANXIANSHANGNENGXIALAIHEGEDECHE,MANZUCHEQITICHUDEXINGJIABIYAOQIU,ZHEIJIAOJIAOYAOCHIGONGCHENG。”

乐优彩票开户“JIAOYAOCHIGONGCHENG”YIQIANKEYIGAN,XIANZAIJIUBUKEYIMA?

乐优彩票开户“QICHEXIAOFEISHICHANGJINFEIXIBI,BUSHIZAOCHUYIGECHEJIUXING。XIAOFEIZHEYIKAISHIJIUQIUBIANYI,HOULAIDAOZHUIQIUXINGJIABI,ZAIHOULAIZHUIQIUPINPAI。”ZHEIWEIGAOGUANSHUO,YOUCIZUIJINJINIAN,QUANXINGYEKAISHITOURUPINPAIYUNYING。ERPINPAIDENEIHAN,YIGEHENZHONGYAOYINSUJIUSHIWAIXINGFENGGE。

为了外形,恒大聘请15个“大师”,肯定花费不小。这位高管介绍,国内设计公司做造型设计,500万一个车型;欧洲公司则是500万欧元一个。

QIXIAOGUORUHENI?

HENGCHIQICHESHOUPILIUKUANCHE

乐优彩票开户TARENWEIHENGDASHOUPICHEDESHEJIMEIYOUPOZHAN。“MEIYOUPOZHAN”SHIYIGEBUDIDEBIAOZHUN,ZHEIBAOZHENGLEHENGDASHOUPICHEDESHEJIPINZHI。

BUGUO,TAYERENWEI,SHOUXIAN,KEYIKANDAOYIXIEFENGGESHANGBUYIZHI,KANBUDAOYIGEPINPAIDE DNA。

QICI,RUGUOYIGAINIANCHEERLUN,YIXIANFENGXING、TANSUOXINGLUN,HENGDASHOUPICHEGUOYUPINGYONGHECHENJIU。ZHEIYIDIANKENENGSHIZAOXINGSHEJIGONGSIDEYIZHONGZIJUE。“ZHEIXIESHEJIGONGSIZAIMEIYOUQIANGYOULIDEGONGCHENGGONGSIDEYUESHUHUOZHESHIZHICHIXIA,CAIQUDEFANGFAJIUSHIJINSHEN,ZHUDONGZILV,BAOZHENGZHEIXIECHENENGZUODECHULAI。”

但是,他认为,“在今天做汽车汽车品牌,如果你不能很好地拿捏好品牌的风格,其实就落后了一步。”

乐优彩票开户ZAIZAOXINGSHEJISHANG,TARENWEI,KEQUZHIDAOSHI,JIZHONGZHAOYIJIASHEJIGONGSILAIZUOSHEJI;HUOZHEPINQINGYIXIEZHENZHENGYOUSHUIZHUNDESHEJISHI,CHENGLIZIJIDESHEJITUANDUI。“、DENGDOUSHIHOUZHEZHEIZHONGZUOFA。TAMENZUIJINYILIANGNIANTUICHUDECHE,MINGXIANBIZHIQIANDESHEJISHUIZHUNYOUZHIDETISHENG,ERQIESHIZAIYIGEFANGXIANG。”

在造型设计之外,找外企做“交钥匙工程”还有一个缺点是,无法充分利用本土的供应商资源。

乐优彩票开户“BENTUGONGYINGSHANGTIXISHIHENWANZHENGDE,BUWANQUANSHIZHONGGUOPINPAI,YEYOUHENDUOSHIWAISHANG。KEYISHUOLINGBUJIANSHUIZHUNGAOYUZIZHUPINPAIZHENGCHESHUIZHUN。BENTUGONGYINGSHANGTIXIKEYIZAITONGYANGZHILIANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,DAFUDUJIANGDICHENGBEN。”TASHUO。

ZAOXINGSHEJIHEGONGCHENGSHEJIZHIHOU,JIUSHIZHIZAOHUANJIE。

8月7日,许家印视察拥有诸多机器人的工厂,看起来震撼。但在这位高管眼里,“这件事很显然是胡扯”。

XUJIAYINSHICHAHENGDAQICHEGONGCHANG

“车刚在模型阶段,焊接线机器人都已经安装到位了。它焊什么东西?焊点怎么定位?这些都还没有,生产线几百个机器人就在安装调试?”他的推测是,恒大找了一个工厂工艺设计公司,花钱先出东西,“那谁都给你干。至于你后面重新修改调制,再花一遍冤枉钱,工艺设计公司又挣一份钱,何乐而不为?”

乐优彩票开户ZHEIWEIGAOGUANRENWEI,HENGDADIYIPICHEZHEIYANGZUO,ZUOWEIZHAOFANGXIANG,YEBUWEICUO,DANSHIWANGXIAZOU,KENDINGBUNENGZAIZHIWANGSUOWEIDEDASHI,ZHIWANGJIAOYAOCHIGONGCHENG。“JINTIANDEQICHEXINGYE,BIJINGGEN20NIANQIANBUYIYANG,HAISHIYAOYOUZIJIDEZHUDAO,JIANLIQIANGYOULIDEZIZHUNENGLI,FOUZEDEHUA,QIANBI20NIANDUOLEHAODUOSHULIANGJI,DANBENZHISHUIPINGHAISHIHENDIXIA。”

“YIDINGYAOBAGUANJIANHEXINJISHUZHANGWOZAIZIJISHOULI。”7YUE23RIXIAWU,GUOJIALINGDAORENKAOCHASHIRUSHIBIAOSHI。HENGDAZHUAZHUZHEIYIDIAN,DALIXUANYANGDUIHEXINJISHUDEZHANGKONG。DANSHI,JIYUCHUCHEDEJINPOXING,HENGDAZICHENG,“YIZIBENHUANJISHU”、“YIJISHUHUANSHIJIAN”,DAFUSUODUANCHANPINYANFAZHOUQI,CAINENGQUEBAOQIANGZHANSHICHANGXIANJI。

YIHANDESHI,DUIYUKUAJIEERLAIDEHENGDA,YINGYONGGUANJIANHEXINJISHUHESUDU,BUNENGJIANDE。

3

意在造车之外?

“ZAOCHESHUYUGONGCHENGWENTI,SHIYINGYONGKEXUE,NIZHIYAOSHIJIZULEQIAN,RENDOUNENGGOUSHANGYUELIANG。HENGDANENGZAOCHUCHELAI,ZHEIGEMEIYOUSHENMEXUANNIAN。”ZHEIWEIGONGCHENGSHEJIGONGSIGAOGUANSHUO。

BUGUO,TAYEQIANGDIAO:“HUAQIANMAIJISHU,CONGJISHUDAOCHANPIN,MEIYOUXUANNIAN,DANSHINENGZUOCHUCHENGGONGDESHANGPINMA?”ZAIZHEIGEWENTISHANG,WOMENJIBENMEIYOUKANDAOHENGDAYOUGUOZIXIDELUNZHENG。

乐优彩票开户DANSHI,HENGDAJIUSHIZHEJICHUCHE,SHIJIANSHITAMENZUIQUESHAODEYIGEYAOSU。“MEIYIGEQIYEDOUYOUTADESHANGYEZHANLVESHANGDEKAOLIANG,BEIHOUYUANYINWOMENMEIYOUBANFALAITUICE。DANSHIHAOWUYIWEN,TAYOUJIQIANGDEMUDEXING。”ZHEIWEIGAOGUANSHUO。

乐优彩票开户“JIQIANGDEMUDEXING”SHISHENME?

乐优彩票开户HUIDAOKAITOU,YIFANGMIANHENGDAZAIGEDIDEQICHECHANYEYUANHAIZAIJIANSHE、ANZHUANGSHEBEI,SHENZHIYOUDECHANYEYUANHAIWEIJIANSHE;LINGYIFANGMIAN,HENGDAJIEQICHECHANYETOUZINADAODEPEITAOSHANGYEZHUZHAIYONGDI,XIANXINGYIBU,RUHENGDAYANGGUANGBANDAO,YIJINGKAISHISHOUMAI,WEIHENGDAZHUANQIANLE。

这对地方政府而言,是一个压力。给出配套商业住宅用地,是以恒大汽车产业落地为前提的。土地开发的权益恒大享受了,地方政府期待的汽车产业落地又在哪里呢?

HENGDANANSHAGONGCHANGLIQIDEPAIZISHUO,YUANJIHUA2020NIAN7YUEWANCHENGSHEBEIANZHUANG,2020NIANJUBEISHENGCHANNENGLI

乐优彩票开户CICIHENGDADUIWAIPILU,SHANGHAIHEGUANGZHOUDEGONGCHANGJINDU,SHIWEIFUWEIZHEILIANGGEYIXIANCHENGSHIZHENGFUDEXINLI:HENGDAHUIJIANXINGCHENGNUO,FANGCHANSHENGYIYAOZUO,QICHESHENGYI,TAMENYEHUIZUO。

如此,我们再看恒大造车之真假,真吗?假吗?从恒驰品牌、恒大汽车的层面,造车无疑为真。但从恒大集团层面,造车业务无论如何努力,也难以撇清以造车为名多拿优质土地的嫌疑。

乐优彩票开户2019NIAN8YUE,《DIANDONGQICHEGUANCHAJIA》TONGGUOJIANSUOHENGDAJITUANQIXIAQICHEYEWUGONGSIJIXIASHUGONGSIZAIGEDIDENADIQINGKUANGFAXIAN。JIN2019NIAN,HENGDAQICHEYEWUBANKUAIGONGSIJIUNALE736WANPINGFANGMITUDI,QIZHONGYOUYUE338WANPINGFANGMI,SHUYUZHUZHAIHUOSHANGYEYONGDI,ZHANZONGNADIMIANJIDEYIBANZUOYOU。SHISHIHENMINGQUE,PINGJIEXINNENGYUANQICHECHANYETOUZIKAILU,HENGDANALEHENDUODI,ERQIENALEHENDUOZHUZHAI、SHANGYEYONGDI,WUYIFEICHANGYOULIYUQIFANGDICHANKAIFAYEWUDEZHANKAI。(CANJIAN:HENGDAZAOCHEDETUDIYOUXI)

另外,恒大宣布造车,也让恒大健康(现为恒大汽车)股价暴涨。2018年初,股价还在3元左右,最高摸高到37元,9月4日还收于26.75元高位。从百亿市值,到现在的2311.2亿,账面收入已经是超千亿。

HENGDAQICHEGUJIAZOUSHI

乐优彩票开户DUICI,YOUYIJIANRENWEI,HENGDAXIANGLAISHINADINENGSHOU,ERQIEWEIGEDIZHENGFUSUOHUANYING,WUXUWEINADIRUCIDAFEIZHOUZHANG。

这一观点,仍然无法解释恒大为何在汽车业务上如此狂飙突进,急于用资本换时间。

YIJIEGUOLUN,HENGDAZAOCHEHEFANGCHANYEWUQITOUBINGJIN,ERZAOCHEYEWUJINDUGENGMAN。LINGWAI,HENGDAHAIXUNUODUOGEDIFANGJIANSHEXINNENGYUANQICHECHANYEYUAN,YEZAIGEDINALEHENDUOPEITAOZHUZHAIHESHANGYEYONGDI。

YINCI,WOMENYEZHINENGZHONGFU“HENGDAZAOCHEDETUDIYOUXI”YIWENMOWEIDEQIWANG——ZAIHENGDADEFANGDICHANYEWULONGLONGXIANGQIANZHIJI,XIWANGHENGDADEXINNENGYUANQICHEYEWU,BUJINJINSHIFANGDICHANYEWUDEKAILUXIANFENG,ERYENENGQITOUBINGJIN,YOUSUOCHENGJIU。(WAN)

LAIYUAN:DIYIDIANDONGWANG

ZUOZHE:DIANDONGQICHEGUANCHAJIA

本文地址:http://csdlwkp.cn/kol/125826

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